Entropy: Origin of the Second Law of Thermodynamics


How did Clausius create entropy and why? I read his original papers to follow how possibly the most confusing concept in Classical Physics was created.

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Some references:

“to cast the theory of Carnot overboard…” Clausius, R “First Memoir” (1850) The Mechanical Theory of Heat (1867) p. 17
In August, 1850 Rankine wrote to William Thomson thanking him for “calling my attention to the paper by Clausius … I approve of your suggestion to send a copy of my paper either to Clausius or Poggendorff” Found in Smith, Crosbie Energy and Empire: A Biographical Study of Lord Kelvin (1989) p. 320
“There is no doubt that Clausius…” Truesdell, C The Tragicomical History of Thermodynamics (2013) p. 204
“…[Clausius’s] hypothesis is so mixed…” Found in Smith, Crosbie Energy and Empire: A Biographical Study of Lord Kelvin (1989) p. 343
“rare modesty “ Robert Clausius “Obituary Notices of Fellows Deceased” Proc. Royal Society of London Vol. 48 (Dec 31, 1891) p. 292-3
“this form…. is incomplete…” Clausius, R “Fourth Memoir” (1854) The Mechanical Theory of Heat (1867) p. 111
“simply the absolute temperature…” Clausius, R “Fourth Memoir” (1854) The Mechanical Theory of Heat (1867) p. 135
“the algebraic sum of all…” Clausius, R “Fourth Memoir” (1854) The Mechanical Theory of Heat (1867) p. 133
“Heat cannot by itself…” Clausius, R “Fourth Memoir” (1854) The Mechanical Theory of Heat (1867) p. 117
“the disgregration is not accompanied …” Clausius, R “Sixth Memoir” (1862) The Mechanical Theory of Heat (1867) p. 222
“a general property of… transformations …” Clausius, R “Sixth Memoir” (1862) The Mechanical Theory of Heat (1867) p. 244
“the algebraic sum of all the transformations…” Clausius, R “Sixth Memoir” (1862) The Mechanical Theory of Heat (1867) p. 247
“it may be proved to be impossible practically to arrive at the absolute zero…” Clausius, R “Sixth Memoir” (1862) The Mechanical Theory of Heat (1867) p. 250
“bring the second fundamental theorem…” Clausius, R “Ninth Memoir” (1865) The Mechanical Theory of Heat (1867) p. 327
“intentionally formed the word entropy…” Clausius, R “Ninth Memoir” (1865) The Mechanical Theory of Heat (1867) p. 357
“1. The energy of the universe is constant. 2. The entropy …” Clausius, R “Ninth Memoir” (1865) The Mechanical Theory of Heat (1867) p. 365
“waste of mechanical energy available to man …” Thomson, W “On a Universal Tendency in Nature to the Dissipation of Mechanical Energy” The Philosophical Magazine Vol. 4 No. iv (1852) p. 304
“the second great law of thermodynamics…” Thomson, W “On the Age of the Sun’s Heat” Macmillan’s Magazine vo. 5 (March 5, 1862). P. 388
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