Skin color is an adaptation to environment. As humans started migrating north from Africa , their skin turned paler. As the migrational path extended south again, the skin turned darker once more.
Eye and hair color are random mutations that proved useful for certain populations. If the trait is considered beautiful and does not hinder survival, it also increases the chance of being passed on to the next generation (sexual selection).
Neanderthals did have blue eyes and ginger hair, BUT we did not get those modern traits from them. We got them through random mutations.
More info about the skin color:
Places where people get more sun exposure, they need darker skin for protection against overexposure (sunburn, skin cancer, etc.). This protection is created by the skin pigment melanin.
Now the catch is that by protecting the skin, the melanin also reduces the Vitamin D absorption (which is absolutely essential for human development).
So in places where less sunlight is available, the body (over several generations) starts developing lighter skin by reducing the amount of melanin present in the skin, which makes your skin more able to process the UV light and turn it into vitamin D.
You’ll see some misconceptions being addressed (like the ginger hair coming from the Neanderthal).
In this videos I’m using psychology and evolutive biology to elaborate on why us humans look so different from each other around the globe.
0:00 Soviet guide of facial features
0:34 Finding criminals based on face
1:07 Composite portrait
2:14 Impact of migrations
3:39 Admixture with hominids
5:04 Inheritance from hominids
5:40 Skin color
6:43 Vitamin D
7:00 Human migrational path
List of songs used:
Joakim Karud – Classic
Building Bridges – Lone Peak Music
Library of Babel (Retro Gaming Version) – LonePeakMusic
A big thank you to LonePeakMusic and Joakim Karud who produced and provided the music.
Websites shown / sources:
Composite portraits: Faceresearch.org
Video footage: Pexels.com